In previous issues we talked about the GM 5.3 engines and how they are abundantly available. Recently, we have been hearing more talk about the smaller version of the LS family known as the 4.8. Now don’t let the smaller version fool you, this engine was designed specifically for reliability and efficiency. Now the big question is, how one can tell the two versions apart? Externally, it is almost impossible to do so just by looking at them. The answer is a harsh one if you can’t find or read the serial number on the engine block. In that case, the only way to find out is by dismantling the engine. Even then, the bottom end case is the same engine housing on both versions making it confusing. So if you accidently bought a 4.8 or have plans to purchase one for your lowrider, this tech is for you.

With 4.8L engines powering countless thousands of trucks on the road, to say nothing of the pricing and availability in wrecking yards, the little 4.8 starts to look attractive. We paid just $250 for ours versus $450 for the 5.3. Down on displacement to be sure, the 4.8L still has everything that makes a Gen 3 or Gen 4 (LQ, LM or LR) small-block great, including cross-bolted mains, high-flow aluminum heads and a combination just begging for the right mods. Rather than just demonstrate what the mods do to the smaller 4.8L, we decided to compare it directly to the more popular 5.3L by performing a back-to-back shootout of sorts. The question we wanted to answer was: How does the smaller 4.8L compare to the 5.3L in stock and modified trim?

Displacement wise, the 4.8L is to the 5.3L what the original 283 was to the 327 small-block (technically 293 versus 325 ci). Given the bore and stroke of each, a better comparison might be the 327 and larger 350, as the 4.8L and 5.3L share the same bore size of 3.78 inches while the 4.8L makes due with a shorter 3.267-inch stroke (down from the typical LS stroke of 3.622 inches). Since the 4.8L and 5.3L share the same block (externally marked 4.8L/5.3L), not to mention the same heads, intake, and other external features, it is difficult to distinguish between the two. More than one enthusiast has purchased what he thought was a 5.3L, only to receive the smaller 4.8L in its place. Internally there are distinct differences, the most obvious being the use of flat-top pistons in the smaller 4.8L.

It should be mentioned that the (L33) H.O. version of the 5.3L was also offered with flat-top pistons (and floating pins), but the aluminum block is a dead giveaway. The 4.8L flat-top pistons are a common (and inexpensive) upgrade for a 5.3L. Crankshaft and connecting-rod casting numbers are the real key to distinguishing between the two. If you have crank casting numbers ending in 216 and rods ending in 143, then you have a 5.3. If, however, your iron-block motor is sporting a 482 crank and 121 rods, then you have a 4.8. It is thought that the rare manual trans 4.8s were also equipped with a 312 crank, but that would definitely be the exception.

In terms of factory power ratings, there is actually not much difference between the 4.8L and larger 5.3L, especially the garden variety LR4 and LM7. Power ratings ranged from 270-290hp net and 285-305 lb-ft for the 4.8L, and 270-305hp net and 315-335 lb-ft for the 5.3L. What should be evident is that the two actually produce similar peak horsepower outputs, but the larger 5.3 will always offer more low-speed grunt. The good news for both 4.8 and 5.3 owners is that they have the ability to extract a significant amount of power from their little V-8s. With proper heads, cam and intake, either can be made to approach or exceed 100 hp per liter (480-530 hp) or 1.63 hp per inch. Of course this kind of specific output will necessitate a high-rpm motor, with cam timing pushing peak power past 7,000 rpm. Such a combination might not be ideal for towing, but would be serious for an Impala or Monte Carlo.

As with any LS-based motor, both the 4.8L and 5.3L will respond well to induction upgrades, including heads, cam and intake. The difference when working with the 4.8L is that cam timing usually chosen for a 5.3L (or larger) stroke version will usually be a tad on the aggressive side for the smaller 4.8L. The stock cam timing employed in the 4.8L (shared with the 5.3L) was the mildest of the LS family, checking in with a 0.466/0.457 lift split, a 190/191 duration split (at 0.050) and 114-degree LSA.

Factory cam upgrades for the 4.8L include the 6.0L truck (LQ4 or LQ9) with slightly more lift and 17 degrees more intake duration, the LS6 cam, with 0.060 more lift and 17 degrees more intake duration and 21 degrees more exhaust duration, or the LS7 cam with 21 degrees more intake duration and another 0.040 lift over the LS6 cam. Of course, the higher-lift cams must be accompanied by a valve spring upgrade.

In addition to the cams tested here, Crane Cams also offers Direct-Fit cams for the truck motors designed to work with the stock valvesprings. These Direct Fit LS cams give lots of options and offer significant power gains (as high as 40-plus hp) through the entire rev range (as low as 2,000 rpm) and do so without affecting idle vacuum, drivability or necessitating a spring swap-making them the perfect upgrade to an otherwise stock 4.8L or 5.3L.

Like the cam profiles, head flow and intake design all cater to the smaller displacement of the 4.8L. Head flow that might be insufficient on a larger 6.0L or stroker is likely more than adequate for a smaller 4.8L. Given that, even a stock set of 4.8L heads flow enough air to support over 400 hp, there is plenty of power available without resorting to a cylinder head upgrade. With that said, it is also possible to further improve the power output with proper head porting without sacrificing low-speed torque. The last thing you want to do is reduce torque production on your 4.8L.

The idea behind this test was to first run both the 4.8L and 5.3L in stock trim, then subject each to the same top-end upgrade featuring CNC-ported heads (706 castings) from Total Engine Airflow, combined with a street able (but powerful) Crane cam and the LSXRT intake from FAST. The TEA heads offered significant flow gain (exceeding 300 cfm), while the Crane cam specs were out at 0.590 lift, 224/232-degree duration split, and 115 LSA. It was a healthy stick for a daily-driven 4.8L or 5.3L, but we knew it would work well with the ported heads and FAST LSXRT intake.

So if you purchased a 4.8 by mistake, it’s not the end of the world. In the end, this comparison should allow you to optimize the use of your engine and figure out which works best for you and your ride. Now follow along as the pros over at Westech Performance help pick the right cam for your engine.

<strong>1</strong>. Our test subjects came from a local wrecking yard. Other than long-tube headers feeding Borla XR1 race mufflers, an electric water pump and Accufab throttle body, the test engines were stock, high-mileage units. Tested in this trim, the 4.8L managed 333 hp at 5,400 rpm and 343 lb-ft of torque at 4,700 rpm.<strong>2</strong>. Like the 4.8L, the 5.3L had logged over 150,000 miles, but was still running strong. Equipped as the 4.8L, the larger 5.3L produced 344 hp at 5,100 rpm and 379 lb-ft at 4,300 rpm. The 5.3L offered only slightly more peak power but a significant increase in torque. Using the same heads, cam and intake, the 5.3L produced peak power and torque at a lower rpm than the smaller 4.8L.<strong>3</strong>. Not exactly your typical spotless crate motor, our test mules were dirty, oily, and had seen countless thousands of abusive miles. Despite this, both offered surprising power and we wouldn't hesitate to swap one into our favorite Impala or Monte Carlo.<strong>4</strong>. Though the 4.8L and 5.3L shared many of their components, the 4.8L was equipped with a different crank, rod and piston combination. The shorter stroke (3.267 vs. 3.622 ins.) combined with a longer rod and a flat-top piston to achieve a reasonable compression ratio with the reduced displacement. Note also we replaced the well-worn stock head gaskets with new Fel Pro MLS units.<strong>5</strong>. By contrast, the 5.3L came equipped with a dished piston. A common upgrade is to swap the flat-top 4.8L piston into the 5.3 to raise the static compression. The 5.3L H.O. version came equipped with just such an upgrade from the factory.<strong>6</strong>. Though the 4.8L and 5.3L shared the same heads, we shipped out a set of 706 head castings to Total Engine Airflow for porting. The TEA heads offered serious flow improvements over the stock castings and were enough to support 600-plus hp.<strong>7</strong>. Working on any LS (LM or LR) motor on the engine dyno is a breeze. Head and cam swaps take less than 1 hour, especially when everything bolts right on. After running the stock components on each motor, we installed the TEA-ported heads.<strong>8</strong>. Crane offers a wide variety of powerful cam profiles for LS applications. To illustrate the difference in displacement, we chose a healthy Crane hydraulic roller profile. The Crane cam offered 0.590 lift, a 224/232-degree duration split and 115-degree LSA. Despite what seems like a mild street profile, this cam allowed the test motors to continue to make power up to (and past) 7,000 rpm.<strong>9</strong>. Swapping cams on the 4.8L and 5.3L was a snap. The engineer who came up with the idea for the plastic retainers that allow the lifter to remain in place during a cam swap certainly deserves a raise. This feature should be considered mandatory on all future factory engines.<strong>10</strong>. The final upgrade for the test mules was this LSXRT intake and matching 102mm throttle body from Fast. Possibly oversized for these smaller motors, the intake insured we would get the maximum performance from the TEA heads and Crane cam. Note also the 42-pound injectors and wiring harness for the Holley Dominator EFI system.<strong>11</strong>. Before increasing the power output of your LS motor, make sure you have sufficient fuel. This A1000 system from Aeromotive insured we had more than enough fuel for our modified motor.<strong>12</strong>. After installation of the TEA heads, Crane cam and FAST intake, the power jumped significantly. On the 4.8L, the upgraded increased power from 333 hp and 343 lb-ft to 476 hp and 392 lb-ft. On the 5.3L, the swap pushed the peak numbers from 344 hp and 379 lb-ft to 484 hp and 424 lb-ft of torque.<strong>13</strong>. 4.8L Stock vs. Modified Tested on the engine dyno, the stock 4.8L produced 333 hp at 5,400 rpm and 343 lb-ft of torque at 4,700 rpm. After replacing the stock components with a set of ported heads from Total Engine Airflow, a Crane 224/232 cam and FAST LSXRT intake, the peak power numbers jumped to 476 hp at 7,000 and 392 lb-ft at 5,900 rpm. The gains were most impressive at high rpm, but note that the modified combination lost no power to the stock one, even down at 3,000 rpm.<strong>14</strong>. 5.3L Stock vs. Modified the results were nearly identical on the slightly larger 5.3L. In stock trim, the 5.3L produced 344 hp at 5,100 rpm and 379 lb-ft of torque at 4,300 rpm. After adding the same TEA heads, Crane 224/232 cam and Fast LSXRT intake, the peak power numbers jumped to 484 hp at 6,800 rpm and 424 lb-ft at 5,700 rpm. Like the 4.8L, the 5.3L lost no power even down at 3,000 rpm, but the gains exceeded 150 hp past 6,000 rpm.<strong>15</strong>. 4.8L vs. 5.3L (Stock) given the same heads, cam and intake, it is not surprising that the 4.8L produced nearly as much peak power as the larger 5.3L. What the extra displacement offered by the 5.3L gave you was extra torque, through most of the rev range. Despite the fact that the 4.8L actually produced more power past 5,700 rpm, the additional displacement offered as much as 50 lb-ft lower in the rev range. Even if they make similar horsepower, bigger motors always offer more torque.<strong>16</strong>. 4.8L vs 5.3L (Modified) The difference in the respective power curves continued after the modifications. The larger 5.3 offered more power through most of the curve, but the difference diminished with engine speed. In modified trim, the 5.3 produced 484 hp and 424 lb-ft of torque, while the smaller 4.8L managed 476 hp and 392 lb-ft of torque. The smaller 4.8 nearly equaled the larger 5.3 in peak power, but both peak power and peak torque occurred 200 rpm higher in the rev range. Given the shape of the curves, we suspect the 4.8L had even more power to offer had the heads been set up with even more valve spring pressure to allow for extended rpm up to 7,500 rpm.

Axalta Paint Tip of the Month

Here’s this Months Paint Tip from Axalta Coating Systems.

For all you painters out there who spray from a high tech facility, garage or your own backyard this sealing tip is for you!

All paint projects begin from the bare metal on up my friends, what good is it if you spend hundreds of man-hours on a custom paint job and the foundation wasn’t prepared or sealed right? In due time all your labor and materials will be coming right back up on you and you don’t want to start all over again. This is why we recommend when you strip or sand blast a frame or body of a project, you start off next by spraying Axalta’s low VOC Etching Primer 22880S Chroma Premier. This will provide you with an excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion sealer for all things that start with bare metal.

Let it flash off for 20 minutes. Then you will need to spray the Ride with LE 3004s 2k Primer Surfacer with three to four coats. Now you’ll have a foundation that will last the lifetime of the vehicle making it worth putting all those man-hours and materials for your painting project. For more technical paint advice please feel free to contact product specialist – Steven.c